Recombinant proteins are the proteins that result from recombinant DNA expressed within cells. The DNA making up the recombinant proteins is also called chimeric DNA because it is DNA from two non-identical organisms. ELISA tests are run in HIV diagnosis to determine the presence or absence of antibodies. The virus genetic material (RNA) is therefore looked for in the ELISA test.
There are many recombinant proteins commercially produced for scientific research. They vary in their structures and names and the cells they affect or where they are found. The following are the main recombinant proteins determined through enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) or the Western Blot:
abgA: The recombinant protein abgA is p-aminobenzoyl-glutamate hydrolase subunit-A homolog recombinant protein in full. Its main host is E.Coli, yeast, mammalian cells or Baculovirus. Its enzymatic activity makes it useful for degradation of small carbon compounds. It catalyzes cleavage of PABA-GLU into PABA and glutamate.
Its molecular function involves the dimerization activity of proteins and the biological process of folic acid catabolism. Patchy skin, depression and fatigue are the symptoms of the recombinant protein’s deficiency. ELISA tests can be carried out to determine level of the protein antibody activity against the enzyme. Therefore, there abgA testing should be done and appropriate supplements or medications given to patients of research specimens.
Kinase-A Inactive holoenzyme type 2 alpha Recombinant Protein: This recombinant protein must be activated by addition of the 2nd messenger cAMP, through release of two catalytic monomeric subunits.
Structurally, it has two subunits, the regulatory and the catalytic and the former has biological activity. Analysis of PKA type 2 agonists or antagonists are best done with this recombinant protein.
Interferon-beta 1a Recombinant protein : Its main host is ovarian cells of the Chinese hamster. It is prominent in immune pathways because of its antibacterial, antiviral and anticancer activities. It is a secreted signal peptide and it is the cellular component of the extracellular region or space.
As an immune protein, this protein carries our biological functions such as cytokine/ chemokine mediated signaling pathways, B cell proliferation, humoral/ adaptive immune response, negative feedback regulation of T cell differentiation , positive regulation transcription from RNA polymerase II promoters. These and other roles make it an important research protein in any biological or molecular laboratory.
NDuFA4 recombinant protein: This is better known as the NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha sub-complex subunit 4 and is a complex protein of the respiratory system. It is important in respiration as it adds electrons to the respiratory chain from NADH. Absence or deficiency could therefore adversely alter the energy released into the body. It is therefore important for metabolism and located in the mitochondrial membrane. The nervous system, cognition and mitochondrial diseases are associated with this recombinant protein.
Aminoacylase-1 (ACY1) Recombinant Protein: This recombinant protein is associated with many organs such as the liver, kidney, adrenal glands, muscles, brain, testes and embryonic tissues. Antibodies produced by these organs can be detected through ELISA testing. Any deficiencies or defects in the gene will translate to large scale health effects.
The main pathways associated and therefore affected in case of a problem include oxidation, arginine/ proline metabolism, 2-oxocarboxylic acid metabolism, and pathways involving biosynthesis of amino acids.
Diseases associated with the protein include kidney disease, adenocarcinomas, neoplasms and nervous system problems.
In conclusion, recombinant proteins interact with DNA affecting most cellular activities in the cells and organs. Tests done to lab specimens or patients targeted to these proteins are important in treating diseases and finding cures to diseases like Hepatitis, Lyme disease and HIV.